The Prairie Mills
Golden, Illinois

Windmill Specifications

Mill type:



Opening date:

Operational Period:

Maximum power:

Milling capacity:

Milling windspeed:

Grinding speeds

"Smock" or "Corn" mill

Mr. Henrich Reemts Emminga

Between August 1872 to August 1873 with two sets of millstones
Installed a third set of millstones in 1874

Milling began on September 1, 1873
Shipped the first shipment of flour to Carthage, IL on November 8, 1873

Operated as a windmill from September 1, 1873 to February 9, 1924.
Operated with a gasoline engine from August 1, 1924 to the mid-1930s.
Restored windmill milled its first grain on September, 2002.

Up to 75 horsepower

Up to 500 bushels of grain per day
(25,000-30,000 pounds, depending on the type of grain)

15 miles per hour minimum, 30 miles per hour maximum

Main Spindle:

15 revolutions per minute (1 revolution every 4 seconds)
27 revolutions per minute (1 revolution every 2.25 seconds)
105 revolutions per minute (1.75 revolutions per second)

Component Specifications


Wind Shaft:

Brake Wheel:

Main Spindle:


Great Spur Wheel:

Stone Nut:




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Four sails, each sail is approximately 35 feet long, 8 feet wide
Sails are made of wood with a steel stock.
    * Two sails use wind shutters that operate similar to window blinds.
    * Two sails use sailcloth.
The sail tips are 92 feet from the ground at its highest point.

Approximately 15 feet long, 14 inches in diameter, weighs 4700 pounds

Approximately 7 feet (86 inches) in diameter with 55 maple conical cogs
Made of hard maple

16 x 16 inches square, approximately 21 feet long, made of hard maple

Approximately 4 feet (50 inches) in diameter with 31 maple conical cogs
Made of hard maple

Approximately 10 feet in diameter with 101 maple straight cogs
Made of hard maple

Approximately 3 feet (33 inches) in diameter with 25 staves
Made of hard maple

Three sets of millstones, two millstones per set.
Each stone is 5 feet in diameter and are made from a soft volcanic
    "Cullin Stone" from a quarry in the Eifel region in France.
Each stone weighs approximately 2500 pounds or 5000 pounds per set.

Weight:  Approximately 40,000 pounds, not including sails
Can rotate in any direction (360 degrees)

Petroleum-based oil on steel parts
Lard or shortening like "Crisco" on the "Dead Curb"
Beeswax on wooden cogs and staves